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940 Soft Turbo - how many different specs ?

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Posted 26 February 2005 - 02:39 PM



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I see different specs of 940 s/t for sale in the STAR classified. From end 95
to 97, there seems to be some difference in terms of specs.

Can some sifus clarify the differences and their respective market prices ? I
would prefer one with most safety specs.


Posted 28 February 2005 - 12:19 PM


    Road Warrior

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Everything is the same except for cosmetic changes. However, 1997 model
comes with airbag. Extra safety compared to others.



Posted 28 February 2005 - 12:55 PM


    Taxi Driver

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Engine remains the same - B230FK
Low Pressure Turbo : 4.5 psi
Maximum Power Output : 99 kW / 135 hp at 4900 RPM
Maximum Torque : 230 Nm at 2300 RPM
FC rating : City Driving - 19 mpg (8 km/ltr)
Highway - 26 mpg (11 km/ltr)
Combined - 20 mpg (8.5 km/ltr)

Good Luck.


Posted 02 March 2005 - 12:59 PM



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My friend's Harmony Edition comes with Auto cruise


Posted 02 March 2005 - 01:37 PM


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Mine still "In Harmonia Progressio" coz no Airbag.Big Smile


Posted 02 March 2005 - 03:45 PM



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Max Power is 135hp @ 4900rpm. What happen if we increase the rpm, still no
power increase? I'm asking because some cars qouted their max. power at a
higher rpm mostly around 5500-6000rpm.


Posted 02 March 2005 - 04:15 PM


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hey vol940
i noticed u're quite knowledgable so i'm gonna ask this...
B230FK caught my attention. are u sure soft turbos are with FK engines
and not FT? do clarify please... because FK are using 530 or 531 heads...
supposedly higher flow compared to FT's head...

max power at 135 @ 4900. how much higher do u wanna rev? i think red line
is 6k and rev cut is 5.5k. if it is an autobox hardly u rev over 5k rpm
in the first place so u'll be in the powerband. stock T cams that comes
in turbo models have a max torque around 4500rpm and max hp at around
5000rpm. if u want to raise the top end u can put in a A-cam or a K-cam.
these are stock volvo cams. if u wanna go for aftermarket camshafts then
u can get sweden's enem V15 or V16 turbo spec OR IPD's turbo cams.


Posted 02 March 2005 - 05:20 PM


    Taxi Driver

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Wooow bro...this will require very long answer and some basic of internal
combustion engine courses.

Not going into details, all depends on the design objective of
manufacturers, wether for street driving, sport or racing. All concern
about VALVE TIMING. Street driving use High Low-End Torque. To develop
this High Low-End Torque we need large engine or using Force Induction,
this is the role of Light Pressure Turbo (as force induction) on all
Volvo LPT.

Why is valve timing important?

While the octane ratio of gasoline, compression ratio, temperature of the
engine, and engine volume determine the what force can be applied to the
piston assuming you had a very long time to do it, and the cylinder was
perfectly sealed (and what torque can be applied to the crank shaft),
the valve timing controls just how much gas/air mixture gets into the
cylinder, how much exhaust leaves the cylinder, and how well the
combustion chamber is sealed during the compression and ignition. An
ideal case would be that the intake valves open, the air/fuel mixture
comes to the point where the pressure inside the cylinder is equal to the
pressure outside the engine, then the valves close and remain perfectly
closed during compression and ignition and expansion. The exhaust valves
instantly open and let all the exhaust gasses out of the combustion
chamber and then the cycle repeats. This, however, is far from the way it
occurs because of many limitations and engineering compromises.

One such compromise arises from the way that valves are actuated on
modern cars. Currently, the only system on the market does the actuating
by a shaft with cams on it (camshaft). Some engines have the shaft
located high in the engine head itself (OHC) and some have it located low
in the block. As the shaft rotates, so do the lobes (cams) attached to
the shaft. When the lobe is in the right position, it presses either a
rod, or a lifter which is connected to the valve. As it passes by, the
lifter is pushed back by a spring and the valve closes again.

The main limitation of such design is the fact that the height of the
cam, the width and when it pushes on the valve in relation to the piston
position is constant regardless of engine speed.

So the same CAM DESIGN can produce Maximum Torque and Power at different
RPM, again all depends on TIMING.

Back to 940 LPT that produce Maximum Power (135 HP) @ 4900 RPM and
Maximum Torque @ 2300 RPM (230 Nm), So what happen if we increase the
RPM ?. Surely power will drop its a matter of Kinetic Gas Flow In and Out
of the engine follow the gaussian functions, bcoz the cam curves use the
gaussian functions, this will dictate the torque curve.

Maximum Power at low rpm is for street driving.
Maximum Power at higher (moderate) rpm is for sport cars.
Maximum Power at High rpm (close to red line) rpm is for racing cars.

To compromise the Low RPM and High RPM problem limitation, manufacturer
develops VTEC engine (Honda) and VVTI engine (Toyota), all back to valve
timing ... should use turbine engine .... no more valve timing ...
hahahahaha. But Nissan plays on the gear ratio with their CVT -
Continously Variable Transmission - these can vary the gear ratio such
that the engine always runs at the same speed regardless of the speed of
the car. In this case, design of the cam will be very simple. Since power
can be freely adjusted, we don’t need a wide power band.

To get the maximum acceleration, Shift the gear at Maximum Power RPM.
Remember that Power = Torque x RPM and Wheel Torque = Engine Torque x
Gear Ratio.

There are so many formulations but not to describe in this forum, may be
every TT should put a session to enrich such knowledge ... just an idea
lar ... Big Smile


Posted 02 March 2005 - 05:35 PM


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Yup, mine is B230FK with mitsubishi turbo TD04, but without turbo meter.
I measured the maximum boost, only 2.5 to 3 psi, but according to the
spec the max boost pressure should be 4.5 psi. I just put a spring to
adjust the wastegate pressure, now got 4.0 to 4.5 psi at manifold and 5.5
to 6.0 psi at junction Plenum - Wastegate. Additional holes on the airbox
(left and right sides) to give more air ... just to free a bit the intake
restriction ... mah ... and removed the CAT replaced with 2.5" straight
pipe from DP to First Silencer .... now ... tak risau nak potong keta.Tongue

All turbo until 94 used FT, but 94/95 and after all turbo replaced to LPT
and indentified as B230FK. B230 FT got 160 BHP.

Volvo 940 GL (1991-1995) The 940 GL is the base model, equipped with a 4
cylinders engine (not Turbo) of 114 hp, the B230F.

Volvo 940 GLE 16Valves (1991-1992) The 940 GLE 16 Valves has the B234F
engine, a 4 cylinders dual camshaft overhead engine. Produced in 1991 and
1992 only.

Volvo 940 TURBO, GLT (1991-1995) The 940 Turbo has a 4 cylinders
Turbocharged engine of 160 hp, black side trims, 15 inch or larger
magnesium wheels, firm suspension, seats made of a mix of velour on the
center and leather on the outside, and other sport options B230FT.

Volvo 940 SE (1992-1992) A special (sport) edition 940 (High Boost).

The B230FK/FT are very good engines. With this (B230FT/FK), you can
expect to get aproximately 260hp before having to do heavy work on the

B230FT 8V 2.3L
1991 - 1994 940T Intercooler

Maximum Power : 121 kW @ 4,800 RPM

Maximum Power : 162-165 bhp @ 4,800 RPM

Maximum Torque : 264 Nm @ 3,450 RPM

Maximum Torque : 194 ft.Ib @ 3,450 RPM

Compression Ratio : 8.7:1

Boost Pressure : 6.8 - 7.7 psi

LH-Jet 2.4, EZK


Posted 02 March 2005 - 06:41 PM


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To make you a bit clear,

Power = Engine Torque x RPM

Wheel Torque = Gear Ratio x Engine Torque

Force = Power / Speed

Force = Mass x Acceleration (your brick has a mass close to 2000 kg)

Acceleration = Power/(Speed x Mass)

When you accelerate your brick to maximum Power (135 HP @ 4900 RPM), this
will give the maximum acceleration, increasing the RPM beyond 4900 the
power will drop and so does the engine torque, decreasing the wheel
torque, hence the acceleration drop also (you feel flat acceleration), no
point going further rpm, just shift the gear up at 4900 RPM.

When you shift the gear up, the torque will drop according to Gear Ratio
of the transmission.

Gear Ratio V940
First Gear - 3.71 : 1
Second Gear - 2.17 : 1
Third Gear - 1.37 : 1
Fourt Gear - 1.00 : 1

From 1 to 2 gear : 41.7% drop in torque
From 2 to 3 gear : 36.6% drop in torque
From 3 to 4 gear : 27% drop in torque

For smooth driving, the computer program for transmission will set in
such a way when shift the gear up the RPM drop will be set down to 2300
RPM where the maximum engine torque occurs (so does maximum wheel torque,
maximum force as a result), so you don't loose your smooth acceleration.

Get it .....???????....